Physiological division of diseases of the respiratory system distinguishes two types:
- obstructive diseases: associated with reduced airflow in the lungs m.in. COPD, bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, bronchospasm, chronic bronchitis.
- restrictive diseases: associated with reduced lung capacity m.in. interstitial lung disease, sarcoidosis,pulmonary infiltrates, pulmonary fibrosis, tuberculosis, cancer.
Diseases of the respiratory system from the anatomical point of view we differentiate into diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract:
- diseases of the upper section: diseases of the nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, throat, larynx and trachea
- diseases of the lower segment: diseases of the lungs, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli
Of the many disease units present within the respiratory system, the most serious are :
- COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)
- lung cancer
- sleep apnoea
- cystic fibrosis
- acute respiratory infections
- ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome)
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